Resources


The CHERISH network has expertise and insight in Budget Impact Analysis; assessments for Costing, Health-Related Quality of Life, and Resource Utilization; Monetary Conversion Factors or Unit Costs for Health Economic evaluation of substance use disorder interventions; and, other Recommended Health Economic references. Click below to find out more.

The National Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (CTN) study, CTN-0032: HIV Rapid Testing and Counseling (NCT00809445), was conducted at 12 substance abuse treatment programs in 2009, and demonstrated efficacy, feasibility / acceptability, and cost-effectiveness of on-site rapid HIV testing compared to off-site referral with no additional benefit for on-site pre-test HIV sexual risk-reduction counseling.  As part of a joint effort between the CTN and the Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration’s Addiction Technology Transfer Network, the CTN-0032 study team produced research-based products designed specifically for substance abuse treatment providers. One product was a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet tool designed to assist substance use treatment programs in creating a budget for delivering onsite rapid HIV testing services.

Compatible with Microsoft Excel 2003 or before: CTN 0032 Blending_03 or before.xls

Compatible with Microsoft Excel 2007 or later: CTN 0032 Blending_07 or later.xlsx

Costing Assessments

Assessment Name Description Link
DATCAP The Drug Abuse Treatment Cost Analysis Program Organizes program cost data across standard categories of resources (e.g. personnel, buildings and facilities, supplies and materials, and miscellaneous) and can be used for a variety of treatment interventions, workplace programs, and other behavioral health programs to estimate total annual program cost and average annual cost per client. http://www.datcap.com/
SASCAP Substance Abuse Services Cost Analysis Program Uses program data to estimate service-level costs for services such as initial patient assessment and treatment planning, initial medical services, counseling, ongoing medical services, case management, quality assurance, and methadone dosing. http://www.rti.org/publication/substance-abuse-services-cost-analysis-program-sascap-new-method-estimating-drug/

Health-Related Quality of Life Assessments

Generic Health-Related Quality of Life Instruments for Calculating Preference or Utility Weights
Instrument Name Description Link
EQ-5D EuroQol-5D EQ-5D is a standardized, 5-dimensional, HRQoL instrument developed by the EuroQol Group. The EQ-5D consists of a descriptive system and the EQ visual analog scale (VAS). The descriptive system is mapped to a health-state index value, which can be used in the calcluation of QALYs. A health-state value of 0 represents death, 1 represents perfect health, and values below zero represent states perceived to be worse than death. https://euroqol.org/eq-5d-instruments/
SF-6D® Short Form 6D® The SF-6D provides a means for mapping the SF-36 and SF-12, version 2, to to a health-state index value, which can be used in the calcluation of QALYs. Health-state values range from 0 (death) to 1 (perfect health). https://www.sheffield.ac.uk/scharr/sections/heds/mvh/sf-6d
QWB-SA Quality of Well-Being Scale — Self Administered The QWB is a preference-weighted measure combining three dimensions of functioning with a measure of symptoms and problems to produce a point-in-time expression of well-being that runs from 0 (death) to 1 (perfect health), which can then be used to calculate QALYs. https://hoap.ucsd.edu/qwb-info/
15D 15-dimensional The 15D is a 15-dimensional, HRQoL instrument that can be mapped to a health-state index value for calculating QALYs. Health-state values range from 0 (death) to 1 (perfect health). http://www.15d-instrument.net/15d/
HUI® Health Utilities Index® The HUI® measurement system is a comprehensive system for measuring health status, health-related quality of life, and producing a health-state index value for calculating QALYs, where 0 represents death, and 1 represents perfect health. http://www.healthutilities.com/
ReQoL Recovering Quality of Life Questionnaire ReQoL is a Patient Reported Outcome Measure developed to assess the quality of life for people with different mental health conditions. Research is ongoing to develop preference weights for use in health economic analysis. http://www.reqol.org.uk/p/overview.html
Quality of Life Fact Sheet Quality of Life for SUD Despite growing recognition that substance use disorder is a chronic disease, quality of life is rarely measured in substance use disorder treatment studies. With funding from the National Insitute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) R01DA033424, investigators measured the quality of life in prescription and injection opioid misuse using primary data from a survey of the US population and secondary data from opioid use disorder patients enrolled in three national treatment studies. http://www.cherishresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/factsheet_010417_MP.pdf

Resource Utilization Assessments

Assessment Name Description Link
ASI Addiction Severity Index

The ASI is a semi-structured interview designed to address seven potential problem areas in individuals with a substance use disorder: medical status, employment and support, drug use, alcohol use, legal status, family/social status, and psychiatric status

http://psychiatry.yale.edu/pdc/resources/ASI_tcm678-175045_tcm678-153-32.pdf
Economic Form 90 Economic Form 90

Designed to measure changes from baseline on key economic outcomes following treatment for alcohol use disorder

https://casaa.unm.edu/inst/Appendix%20A%20-%20Economic%20Form%2090.pdf
NMOS Non-Study Medical and Other Services

Collects individual-level data on substance use disorder, mental health, and physical health services received outside of the study-specific treatment setting. It has been flexibly adapted to the needs of different study interventions and populations.

https://www.drugabuse.gov/sites/default/files/sttrfiles/Service_UtilizationV.pdf
GAIN Global Appraisal of Individual Needs

Collects individual-level information on the utilization of substance use disorder, mental health, physical health, community, and social services, as well as criminal justice resources.

http://gaincc.org/about/

These Monetary Conversion Factors are a comprehensive source for estimating the economic consequences of Substance Use Disorders serving as a valuable tool for clinicians, researchers, and policy makers seeking to conduct economic evaluations. The more than sixty unique measures are featured in the tables below.

These tables are reproduced with permission from lead author and originally published open access as:

McCollister KE, Yang X, Sayed B, French MT, Leff JA, Schackman BR. Monetary Conversion Factors for Economic Evaluations of Substance Use Disorders. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2017. 81: 25-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2017.07.008

Medical and Behavioral Health Services

Service Original Value 2016 Value Minimum Maximum Reference
Medical (Physical Health) Services
Inpatient Hospital Day – For-profit Hospital $1,831 (2015 dollars) $1,937 -- -- (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2015)
Inpatient Hospital Day – Non-profit hospital $2,413 (2015 dollars) $2,553 -- -- (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2015)
Inpatient Hospital Day - State/local hospital $2,013 (2015 dollars) $2,130 -- -- (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2015)
Emergency Department Visit (treat and release, unintentional injury) $2,314 (2010 dollars) $2,996 -- -- (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010)
Physician visit (new patient, 30 minutes) $109 (2015 dollars) $115 -- -- (Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Services, 2016)
Physician visit (new patient, 45 minutes) $166 (2015 dollars) $176 -- -- (Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Services, 2016)
Physician visit (established patient, 15 minutes) $73 (2015 dollars) $77 -- -- (Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Services, 2016)
Physician visit (established patient, 25 minutes) $109 (2015 dollars) $115 -- -- (Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Services, 2016)
Behavioral Health Services
Psychiatric Inpatient (per day) $710 (2008 dollars) $999 -- -- (Stranges et al, 2011)
Psychiatric diagnostic examination with medical services (new patient with physician) $148 (2015 dollars) $157 -- -- (Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Services, 2016)
Individual psychotherapy session, insight oriented, behavior modifying, and/or supportive (established patient, 45 minutes) $85 (2015 dollars) $90 -- -- (Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Services, 2016)
Individual psychotherapy with medication management services (established patient, 60 minutes) $110 (2015 dollars) $116 -- -- (Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Services, 2016)
Group therapy and counseling session with physician (per client) $8.78 (2014 dollars) $9.84 $3.32 -- (Berger, 2005)
Group therapy and counseling session with licensed therapist (per client) $2.12 (2014 dollars) $2.38 $1.40 $3.61 (Berger, 2005)
Group therapy and counseling session with nurse (per client) $3.36 (2014 dollars) $3.77 $2.48 $5.33 (Berger, 2005)
Laboratory Services
Test for alcohol/drug use – Urinalysis $65 (2016 dollars) $65 $28 $80 (Cost Helper Inc, 2017)
HIV testing per patient (STD Clinic, with pre-test counseling) $23 (non-reactive) $77 (reactive) (2006 dollars) $36 (non-reactive) $121 (reactive) -- -- (Farnham et al., 2008)
HIV testing per patient (STD Clinic, without pre-test counseling) $13 (non-reactive) $66 (reactive) (2006 dollars) $20 (non-reactive) $104 (reactive) -- -- (Farnham et al., 2008)
HIV testing per patient (emergency department) $10 (non-reactive) $61 (reactive) (2006 dollars) $16 (non-reactive) $96 (reactive) -- -- (Farnham et al., 2008)
HIV/AIDS counseling and rapid test (HIV-negative, hospital setting) $48 (2006 dollars) $75 $39 $138 (Pinkerton et al., 2010)
Screening for Hepatitis B Infection (office visit and blood test) $33 (2008 dollars) $46 -- -- (Eckman et al., 2011)

STD = Sexually Transmitted Disease

Originally published as:

McCollister KE, Yang X, Sayed B, French MT, Leff JA, Schackman BR. Monetary Conversion Factors for Economic Evaluations of Substance Use Disorders. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2017. 81: 25-34.

Full manuscript is available for free through open access agreement. Table is reproduced with permission from lead author.

Substance Use Disorder Treatment

Service Original Value 2016 Value Minimum Maximum Reference
Inpatient detoxification for SUD (day) $308 (2009 dollars) $414 $20 $810 (Alexandre et al., 2012)
Residential SUD treatment (day) $113 (2006 dollars) $177 $136 $206 (French et al., 2008)
Intensive outpatient treatment (visit) $53 (2006 dollars) $83 $54 $134 (French et al., 2008)
Standard outpatient treatment (visit) $20 (2006 dollars) $31 $17 $50 (French et al., 2008)
Methadone or disulfiram (day) $15 (2006 dollars) $24 $19 $25 (French et al., 2008)
Screening for SUD $6.85 (2009 dollars) $9.22 $0.69 $32 (Bray et al., 2012)
Brief Intervention $46 (2009 dollars) $62 $4.22 $126 (Bray et al., 2012)
Brief Treatment $26 (2012 dollars) $31 $27 $33 (Barbosa et al., 2016)
Referral to Treatment $9.77 (2012 dollars) $12 $9.58 $14 (Barbosa et al., 2016)

SUD = substance use disorder

Originally published as:

McCollister KE, Yang X, Sayed B, French MT, Leff JA, Schackman BR. Monetary Conversion Factors for Economic Evaluations of Substance Use Disorders. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2017. 81: 25-34.

Full manuscript is available for free through open access agreement. Table is reproduced with permission from lead author.

Social Services, Productivity Outcomes, and Disability Outcomes

Measure Original Value 2016 Value Minimum Maximum Reference
Day missed school/training for any reason $9.13 (1986 dollars) $17 -- -- (Light, 2001)
Day missed work for any reason $130 (2007 dollars) $149 -- -- (Grosse et al., 2009)
Day in foster care, group home, or ward of the state $22 (2012 dollars) $23 $15 $29 (DeVooght & Blazey, 2013)
Day in homeless shelter $29 (2004 dollars) $36 $14 $68 (The Lewin Group, 2004)
Lifetime cost of low birthweight (per case) $40,000 (1990 dollars) $173,001 -- -- (Cutler & Meara, 1999)
Lifetime cost of fetal alcohol syndrome (per case) $932,000 (2002 dollars) $1,884,290 -- -- (Lupton et al, 2004)
Day experiencing medical problems (any) $20 (1999 dollars) $50 -- -- (French, Salome, & Carney, 2002)
Day experiencing psychological or psychiatric problems $7.62 (1999 dollars) $19 -- -- (French, Salome, & Carney, 2002)
Quality-adjusted life year lost $100,000 $100,000 $50,000 $200,000 (Neumann et al., 2014)

Originally published as:

McCollister KE, Yang X, Sayed B, French MT, Leff JA, Schackman BR. Monetary Conversion Factors for Economic Evaluations of Substance Use Disorders. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2017. 81: 25-34.

Full manuscript is available for free through open access agreement. Table is reproduced with permission from lead author.

Criminal Activity and Criminal Justice Services

Measure Original Value 2016 Value Minimum Maximum Reference
Criminal Activity (per offense)
Murder $8,982,907 (2008 dollars) $10,086,337 $4,653,795 $12,744,967 (McCollister et al., 2010)
Rape/Sexual assault $240,776 (2008 dollars) $270,352 $90,279 $415,156 (McCollister et al., 2010)
Aggravated assault $107,020 (2008 dollars) $120,166 $24,086 -- (McCollister et al., 2010)
Robbery $42,310 (2008 dollars) $47,507 $20,875 $314,660 (McCollister et al., 2010)
Arson $21,103 (2008 dollars) $23,695 -- $60,217 (McCollister et al., 2010)
Motor vehicle theft $10,772 (2008 dollars) $12,095 $1,935 -- (McCollister et al., 2010)
Stolen property $7,974 (2008 dollars) $8,953 $170 $25,532 (McCollister et al., 2010)
Household burglary $6,462 (2008 dollars) $7,256 $2,216 $33,906 (McCollister et al., 2010)
Embezzlement $5,480 (2008 dollars) $6,153 -- -- (McCollister et al., 2010)
Forgery and counterfeiting $5,265 (2008 dollars) $5,912 $935 -- (McCollister et al., 2010)
Fraud $5,032 (2008 dollars) $5,650 -- -- (McCollister et al., 2010)
Vandalism $4,860 (2008 dollars) $5,457 -- -- (McCollister et al., 2010)
Larceny/theft $3,966 $386 -- -- (McCollister et al., 2010)
Day engaged in illegal activity (for profit) $708 (1997 dollars) $1,011 -- -- (French et al., 2000)
Alcohol involved traffic crash (no injury) $2,843 (2010 dollars) $3,130 -- -- (Blincoe et al., 2015)
Alcohol involved traffic crash (fatality) $10,143,026 (2010 dollars) $11,167,605 -- -- (Blincoe et al., 2015)
Criminal Justice Services
Day on probation $3.42 (2008 dollars) $3.84 -- -- (Pew Center on the State, 2009)
Day on parole $7.47 (2008 dollars) $8.39 -- -- (Pew Center on the State, 2009)
Day in jail/detention $79 (2010 dollars) $87 -- -- (Kyckelhahn, 2012)
Day incarcerated $86 (2010 dollars) $95 -- -- (Henrichson & Delaney, 2012)

Originally published as:

McCollister KE, Yang X, Sayed B, French MT, Leff JA, Schackman BR. Monetary Conversion Factors for Economic Evaluations of Substance Use Disorders. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2017. 81: 25-34.

Full manuscript is available for free through open access agreement. Table is reproduced with permission from lead author.

Infectious Diseases Consequences

Measure Original Value 2016 Value Minimum Maximum Reference
HIV, HCV, Hepatitis B
Lifetime medical cost savings from preventing a case of HIV $326,500 (2012 dollars) $389,359 $358,592 $420,246 (Schackman et al., 2015)
Lifetime cost of care for HIV infected person (early diagnosis) $253,222 (2011 dollars) $314,148 -- -- (Farnham et al., 2013)
Lifetime cost of care for HIV infected person (late diagnosis) $402,238 (2011 dollars) $499,018 -- -- (Farnham et al., 2013)
Lifetime cost for individual infected with Hepatitis C $64,490 (2011 dollars) $80,007 $58,036 $90,800 (Razavi et al., 2013)
Annual health care costs associated with Hepatitis B (chronic Hepatitis B) $761 (2000 dollars $1,814 -- -- (Lee et al., 2004)
Annual health care costs associated with Hepatitis B (decompensated cirrhosis) $11,459 (2000 dollars) $27,316 -- -- (Lee et al., 2004)
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Chlamydia medical costs
Men $30 (2010 dollars) $39 $19 $58 (Owusu-Edusei et al., 2013)
Women $364 (2010 dollars) $471 $236 $707 (Owusu-Edusei et al., 2013)
Gonorrhea medical costs
Men $79 (2010 dollars) $102 $52 $154 (Owusu-Edusei et al., 2013)
Women $354 (2010 dollars) $458 $229 $688 (Owusu-Edusei et al., 2013)
Human Papillomavirus medical costs
Men $45 (2010 dollars) $58 $30 $101 (Owusu-Edusei et al., 2013)
Women $191 (2010 dollars) $247 $124 $426 (Owusu-Edusei et al., 2013)
Herpes Simplex Virus Type II medical costs
Men $761 (2010 dollars) $985 $493 $1,479 (Owusu-Edusei et al., 2013)
Women $621 (2010 dollars) $804 $403 $1,207 (Owusu-Edusei et al., 2013)
Syphilis medical costs
Men and Women $709 (2010 dollars) $918 $460 $1,378 (Owusu-Edusei et al., 2013)
Alexandre, P. K., Beulaygue, I. C., French, M. T., McCollister, K. E., Popovici, I., & Sayed, B. A. (2012). The economic cost of substance abuse treatment in the state of Florida. Eval Rev, 36(3), 167-185. doi:10.1177/0193841X12450164
Barbosa, C., Cowell, A. J., Landwehr, J., Dowd, W., & Bray, J. W. (2016). Cost of Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment in Health Care Settings. J Subst Abuse Treat, 60, 54-61. doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2015.06.005
Berger, V. F. Psychologist Anywhere Anytime. Retrieved from http://www.psychologistanywhereanytime.com/treatment_and_therapy_psychologist/psychologist_group_therapy.htm Accessed June 22, 2017
Blincoe, L. J., Miller, T. R., Zaloshnja, E., & Lawrence, B. A. (2015). The Economic and Societal Impact Of Motor Vehicle Crashes, 2010 (Revised). Retrieved from https://crashstats.nhtsa.dot.gov/Api/Public/ViewPublication/812013 Accessed
Bray, J. W., Zarkin, G. A., Hinde, J. M., & Mills, M. J. (2012). Costs of alcohol screening and brief intervention in medical settings: a review of the literature. J Stud Alcohol Drugs, 73(6), 911-919.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS), Cost of Injury Reports 2010, Both Sexes, All Ages, United States. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/index.html Accessed June 23, 2017
Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2016). Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data. Retrieved from https://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/Medicare-Provider-Charge-Data/Physician-and-Other-Supplier2015.html Accessed June 23, 2017
Cost Helper Inc. (2017). Drug or Alcohol Testing Cost. Retrieved from http://health.costhelper.com/drug-alcohol-test.html Accessed June 23, 2017
Cutler, D. M., & Meara, E. (1999). The technology of birth: Is it worth it? Frontiers in Health Policy Research, 3(1), 33-67. doi:10.3386/w7390
DeVooght, K., & Blazey, D. (2013). Family Foster Care Reimbursement Rates in the U.S.: A Report from a 2012 National Survey on Family Foster Care Provider Classifications and Rates. Retrieved from https://www.childtrends.org/publications/family-foster-care-reimbursement-rates-in-the-u-s-a-report-from-a-2012-national-survey-on-family-foster-care-provider-classifications-and-rates/ Accessed June 23, 2017
Eckman, M. H., Kaiser, T. E., & Sherman, K. E. (2011). The cost-effectiveness of screening for chronic hepatitis B infection in the United States. Clin Infect Dis, 52(11), 1294-1306. doi:10.1093/cid/cir199
Farnham, P. G., Gopalappa, C., Sansom, S. L., Hutchinson, A. B., Brooks, J. T., Weidle, P. J., . . . Rimland, D. (2013). Updates of lifetime costs of care and quality-of-life estimates for HIV-infected persons in the United States: late versus early diagnosis and entry into care. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 64(2), 183-189. doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e3182973966
Farnham, P. G., Hutchinson, A. B., Sansom, S. L., & Branson, B. M. (2008). Comparing the costs of HIV screening strategies and technologies in health-care settings. Public Health Rep, 123 Suppl 3, 51-62. doi:10.1177/00333549081230S307
French, M. T., Popovici, I., & Tapsell, L. (2008). The economic costs of substance abuse treatment: updated estimates and cost bands for program assessment and reimbursement. J Subst Abuse Treat, 35(4), 462-469. doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2007.12.008
French, M. T., Salome, H. J., & Carney, M. (2002). Using the DATCAP and ASI to estimate the costs and benefits of residential addiction treatment in the State of Washington. Soc Sci Med, 55(12), 2267-2282.
Grosse, S. D., Krueger, K. V., & Mvundura, M. (2009). Economic productivity by age and sex: 2007 estimates for the United States. Med Care, 47(7 Suppl 1), S94-103. doi:10.1097/MLR.0b013e31819c9571
Henrichson, C., & Delaney, R. (2012). The Price of Prisons: What Incarceration Costs Taxpayers. Retrieved from https://storage.googleapis.com/vera-web-assets/downloads/Publications/the-price-of-prisons-what-incarceration-costs-taxpayers/legacy_downloads/price-of-prisons-updated-version-021914.pdf Accessed June 23, 2017
Kaiser Family Foundation. (2015). Hospital Adjustsed Expenses per Inpatient Day by Ownership. Retrieved from http://www.kff.org/health-costs/state-indicator/expenses-per-inpatient-day-by-ownership/?currentTimeframe=0 Accessed June 23, 2017
Kyckelhahn, T. (2012). State Corrections Expenditures, FY 1982-2010. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, US Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Retrieved from https://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=4556 Accessed June 23, 2017
Lee, T. A., Veenstra, D. L., Iloeje, U. H., & Sullivan, S. D. (2004). Cost of chronic hepatitis B infection in the United States. J Clin Gastroenterol, 38(10 Suppl 3), S144-147.
Light, A. (2001). In-School Work Experience and the Returns to Schooling. Journal of Labor Economics, 19(1), 65-93.
Lupton, C., Burd, L., & Harwood, R. (2004). Cost of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet, 127C(1), 42-50. doi:10.1002/ajmg.c.30015
McCollister, K. E., French, M. T., & Fang, H. (2010). The cost of crime to society: new crime-specific estimates for policy and program evaluation. Drug Alcohol Depend, 108(1-2), 98-109. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.12.002
Neumann, P. J., Cohen, J. T., & Weinstein, M. C. (2014). Updating cost-effectiveness–the curious resilience of the $50,000-per-QALY threshold. N Engl J Med, 371(9), 796-797. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1405158
Owusu-Edusei, K., Jr., Chesson, H. W., Gift, T. L., Tao, G., Mahajan, R., Ocfemia, M. C., & Kent, C. K. (2013). The estimated direct medical cost of selected sexually transmitted infections in the United States, 2008. Sex Transm Dis, 40(3), 197-201. doi:10.1097/OLQ.0b013e318285c6d2
Pew Center on the State. (2009). One in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections. Philadelphia: Pew Charitable Trusts. Retrieved from http://www.pewtrusts.org/~/media/assets/2009/03/02/pspp_1in31_report_final_web_32609.pdf Accessed June 23, 2017
Pinkerton, S. D., Bogart, L. M., Howerton, D., Snyder, S., Becker, K., & Asch, S. M. (2010). Cost of rapid HIV testing at 45 U.S. hospitals. AIDS Patient Care STDS, 24(7), 409-413. doi:10.1089/apc.2009.0348
Razavi, H., Elkhoury, A. C., Elbasha, E., Estes, C., Pasini, K., Poynard, T., & Kumar, R. (2013). Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease burden and cost in the United States. Hepatology, 57(6), 2164-2170. doi:10.1002/hep.26218
Schackman, B. R., Fleishman, J. A., Su, A. E., Berkowitz, B. K., Moore, R. D., Walensky, R. P., . . . Losina, E. (2015). The lifetime medical cost savings from preventing HIV in the United States. Med Care, 53(4), 293-301. doi:10.1097/MLR.0000000000000308
Stranges, E., Levit, K., Stocks, C., & Santora, P. (2011). State Variation in Inpatient Hospitalizations for Mental Health and Substance Abuse Conditions, 2002–2008: Statistical Brief #117. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Statistical Briefs. Retrieved from https://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb117.pdf Accessed June 23, 2017
The Lewin Group. (2004). Costs of Serving Homeless Individuals in Nine Cities. Retrieved from http://www.csh.org/resources/cost-of-serving-homeless-individuals-in-nine-cities/ Accessed June 23, 2017

Table A1: Literature Search and Cost Data Abstraction: Number of Sources

Literature Search Step Social Costs of SUDsa Medical and Laboratory Services Behavioral Health Services SUD Treatment Social Services, Productivity, Disability Criminal Activity/Criminal Justice Infectious Diseases Consequences
MeSH and targeted search for cost of substance use disorders and specific outcome domains (non-duplicates) 471 5,297 623 791 916 7,727 1,828
Abstracts reviewed 45 182 114 131 129 207 143
Full text articles reviewed 20 18 5 19 13 23 14
Journal articles fully abstracted N/A 3 1 4 8 8 5
National data and online sources abstractedb N/A 4 3 N/A N/A N/A N/A

Notes: Databases searched were PubMed, Google Scholar, EBSCOhost, Web of Science. Key words: “substance use disorder” or “substance abuse” combined with “cost,” “economic consequences,” “economic burden,” or “social costs.” For each outcome measure we used keywords “outcome” with the cost-related keywords above (e.g., “emergency department visits and cost”).

N/A = not applicable; SUD = substance use disorder; MeSH = Medical Subject Headings; MCF = monetary conversion factor; CMS = Centers for Medicare and Medicaid

a MCFs were not selected from studies on the social costs of SUDs. We identified the cost sources used in the studies separately in our domain- and outcome-specific searches.
b Two sources (CMS data) used for both Medical and Behavioral Health Services. Final count of sources from which MCFs were abstracted is 34.

  • Drummond MF. Methods for the Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programmes. Oxford university press; 2005. ISBN 978-019-852944-6 | ISBN 978-019-852945-3
  • Muennig P, Bounthavong M. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Health: A Practical Approach, 3rd Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007. ISBN 978-1-119-01126-2
  • Glick HA, Doshi JA, Sonnad SS, Polsky D. Economic evaluation in clinical trials. Oxford University Press; 2014. ISBN 978-0-199-68502-8
  • Neumann PJ, Sanders GD, Russell LB, Siegel JE, Ganiats TG. Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2017. ISBN 978-0-190-49293-9
  • University of Pennsylvania, Health Services Research Unit (resources include presentations from past lectures, Stata programs, etc.): http://www.uphs.upenn.edu/dgimhsr/
  • State Health Practice Database for Research: http://www.shpdr.org/
  • The Tufts Medical Center Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry: www.cearegistry.org
  • Guidance on selecting the most appropriate price index for adjusting health expenditures or costs for inflation:

Dunn A, Grosse SD, Zuvekas SH. Adjusting Health Expenditures for Inflation: A Review of Measures for Health Services Research in the United States. Health Serv Res. 2016 Nov 21. doi: 10.1111/1475-6773.12612. [Epub ahead of print]

  • Guidance on selecting appropriate monetary conversation factors / unit costs for use in economic analysis are available here:

McCollister K, Yang X, Sayed B, French MT, Leff JA, Schackman BR. Monetary Conversion Factors for Economic Evaluations of Substance Use Disorders. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. 2017;81:25-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2017.07.008